We Need to Talk about Kelvin
The book introduces the reader to quantum theory and the atomic nature of matter, to the processes going on in the centre of stars, andd to the origin of the universe. To me, though, the central premise of the book seemed flawed. You can't deduce most of modern science from a few simple observations,. For instance, in the first chapter Chown deduces the quantum nature of matter from the ability to see your reflection in a pane of glass - but this is a consequence of the wave nature of light, and its quantum nature needs totally different observations. It's wrong to suggest to novice readers that if they were a bit better at following the arguments presented then they'd get a clear view of the nature of the universe. And some of the facts that are 'deduced' such as the anthropic arguments, or the intrinsically random nature of the universe, are still being hotly debated.
On the other hand, the book does provide an accessible route to many important parts of science, and if you take the 'deductions' with a pinch of salt then you may well get a lot out of reading it. I wouldn't see it as a winner of the 2010 Royal society prize though.